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JONES 68 4 , pp. ALLEN 68 4 , pp. DIETZ 68 4 , pp. Who—whose—whom or marry—marries— married are examples of words in English with variant forms. This word list gives the standard form of each Spanish word. As you read Spanish records, you will need to be aware that some words vary with usage. Plural forms of Spanish words usually add s to the singular noun as well as to the article and adjective. Thus, el abuelo materno the maternal grandparent become los abuelos maternos the maternal grandparents.

The use of abbreviations is very common in Spanish handwriting. They can be used for words and names. To view some common abbreviations click on the following links:. Spanish Name Abbreviations. Written Spanish uses three letters in addition to the 26 letters used in the English alphabet.

The letter w , although not part of the Spanish alphabet, is included since it is found in a few names of foreign origin. The following list shows the letters in alphabetical order:. In Spanish indexes of surnames, it is important to note that prefixes such as De la Torre may be ignored in alphabetization. Be sure to search under both parts of a name, for example, De la Torre and Torre, de la. Click on the words Spanish Alphabet Chart to download a chart showing the Spanish alphabet and illustrations showing how each letter might be written.

Accent marks do not affect alphabetical order. Although Spanish spelling was standardized in the mids, scribes usually spelled words the way they sounded. Generally, variations between old and modern spellings should not cause too much trouble for the researcher. In Spanish, the following variations are common:. This word list includes only the words most commonly found in genealogical sources. For further help, use a Spanish-English dictionary. These are in the European collection.

The call numbers begin with Most bookstores also carry inexpensive Spanish-English dictionaries. The following list gives the cardinal 1, 2, 3, etc. In actual usage, days of the month are almost never written in ordinal form. Eugene P. Sheehy's Guide to Reference Books lists six additional tools. Since the legal system of the Iberian world derives from sources different from those of the English-speaking world, it may be possible that the English translation is only an approximation due to the absence of a more precise term in English. Useful would be a glossary of deceptive cognates and other words difficult to convey to the English monolingual: amparo, asesorar, contestar, declarar, and demandar.

Latin American Legal Abbreviations fills a need in legal reference; however, the disparateness of Roman and Anglo Saxon legal systems requires more scholarly accouterments for the user. This plus more attention to source of materials would have considerably enhanced the present work. This volume, dedicated to the memory of Joseph H. Silverman , states that its principal objective is to offer a number of points of view on teaching Spanish Golden Age drama on both the undergraduate and graduate levels.

By editorial de sign, the first essays are more applicable to undergraduate courses, while the rest are geared more for graduate teaching. In brief prefatory remarks, Hesse outlines some chronological stages in the development of approaches to the teaching of Golden Age plays, leading up to the great variety of modern approaches manifested in the eight essays which comprise this collection.

With the advent of New Criticism, scholars came to scrutinize with much greater care the texts themselves. Hesse cites the work of A. Parker in , and the reactions published in by James A. Parr as significant contributions to the development of a more modern and relevant approach to criticism which would come to examine the form, structure, imagery, irony, language, and human values found in a play. Many of these new perspectives are exemplified in the work of the eight colleagues who are at the same time both noted scholars and experienced teachers of Golden Age drama.

Anne M. Donald T. In applying this approach to the teaching of Fuenteovejuna , Dietz avowedly shifts emphasis from Lope's play to the affective reaction which the play produces in his students. Only after weeks of discussing the basic human concerns elicited by the reading of the play does Dietz engage in traditional study of its historical background and artistic qualities. Susan L. DiPuccio attempts to rectify an unfortunate misconception according to which the apparently nihilistic premise of the discipline has been overemphasized. In deconstructing El pintor de su deshonra , DiPuccio shows how deconstruction can contribute two useful aids to literary criticism: it encourages the critic to look for multiplicity of meaning, and it prevents reducing the text to a set of maxims that conveniently suit the critic's, the reader's, or the author's preconceived notions on life and literature.

Hesse and Vern G. Williamsen, completes the volume. Any overall evaluation of this monograph would have to recognize the scholarly value of the essays therein published. Collectively, however, and particularly in light of the plays which they analyze, they do not represent a balanced overview of Spanish Golden Age theater. No other Golden Age dramatist is represented. As individual essays, they are good, although the orientation of most is scholarly rather than pedagogical. There is no doubt that this volume will be valuable to all devotees of Spanish Golden Age theater, even though the avowed pedagogical thrust of the title seems somewhat misleading.

The twelve chapters adhere to an unvarying format. Each opens with a discussion of a literary period, its major authors, and their best-known writings, followed by an anthology of brief excerpts from selected works, questions on the chapters's content, and a self-test composed of multiple choice items. A basic bibliography containing twenty-three items, an onomastic index, and an answer key to the self-tests complete the volume.

While this manual does not improve on the coverage and critical insight of Anderson Imbert, whom he frequently quotes, it is, without question, the most up-to-date work of its kind currently available. Shimose, a Bolivian poet, has written a highly readable narrative, but the flow of his prose is plagued by lengthy catalogs which, regrettably, appear all too often. In some cases he provides plot summaries or a few remarks about content or significance but in others he merely lists authors and enumerates principal works.

Sketchy treatment is given not only to minor literary figures but also to the contemporary period as a whole. By way of contrast, the older literature receives considerably more space e. Armando Valladares and Luisa Valenzuela are likewise absent from the chapters on contemporary writers. This erratic coverage can convey a false impression of the relative worth of a particular work or author in comparison with another and may prove confusing to the unwary.

His historical exposition, more descriptive than critical, fails to elude the usual hazards of this type of writing inevitable errors, inconsistent coverage, and infelicitous classifications. In addition, the overly abbreviated anthology selections actually hinder comprehension by not allowing readers to get a feel for the works presented.

To his credit, Shimose disguises his nationalistic pride, offering a fair and equitable assessment of authors regardless of their origin. His inclusion of many obscure writers especially Bolivians not found in the standard reference sources and his listing of pen names are two of the volume's major virtues.

These features, combined with the currency factor, make this a useful reference source for student and scholar alike. However, as with all works of this nature, it should be consulted with a certain amount of caution. Taking his cue from a statement made in by Harri Meier that the complex field of Spanish expressions of futurity has yet to be studied. Gerhard Bauhr has undertaken the challenge for peninsular Spanish. He analyzes the two primary methods of expressing the future, cites percentages from his corpus, and then suggests possible factors that determine the use of one form over the other.

His corpus is drawn from fifty theatrical works written between and by such authors as Antonio Buero Vallejo, Carlos Llopis, Jorge Establier Llopis, Miguel Mihura and Alfonso Sastre, but his preliminary discussion of previous work includes four studies of American Spanish as well as three of peninsular Spanish. After citing previous work in the field, Bauhr addresses the concept of verbal temporality. Bull and Guillermo Rojo Bauhr's example sentences involve such verbs as nevar , clarear and desmayar , which communicate the natural consequence of a process that is already present at the moment of utterance.

Bauhr next examines the future constructions in the light of aspect and concludes that they are both aspectually neutral. The final section of the book analyzes the distribution and use of the two future constructions in various syntactic environments. As a scholarly work, Bauhr's effort is exemplary. The text is admirably free of errors, there is a table of abbreviations, a series of tables of distribution figures, and an excellent index. There is also a five-page summary and a five-paragraph abstract, both in English.

Each selection in the corpus is given with enough context for readers to grasp its essential meaning, and errors that occur within the cited material are designated by sic. Although teachers of Spanish and generalists can be enlightened by the differing grammatical environments that elicit one or the other of the future constructions and may enjoy scanning the corpus, the technical arguments that Bauhr elaborates are basically there for the delectation of linguistics specialists.

These Negros Congos are members of ritualistic societies which celebrate during the pre-lenten Carnival season in historically-syncretic, African-and-Hispanic ceremonies. Their celebrations are characterized by speech patterns peculiar to them called congo speech. Lipski's stated purpose 2 and his plan of attack 8 are to describe linguistically the Costa Arriba congo speech patterns generally incomprehensible to the uninitiated, and to measure the evolution of this speech with regard to patterns of creolization and African influences on the Spanish of Latin America.

He succeeds brilliantly in both efforts. The five chapters that comprise this text present an overview of the congos , their speech, and their rituals. The rituals, inherently tied to their speech patterns, are in fact demystified in this book. Chapter 1 defines concretely and concisely the topic and the methods Lipski plans to use. Chapter 2 handles morphological, syntactic, and semantic traits of the speech, ranging from verbal restructuring to those vestigial attributes shared with speakers of American Spanish varieties found in the United States.

The third and fourth chapters deal with phonological traits of congo speech and comparisons with general Panamanian Spanish; herein Lipski's work reveals interesting correspondences between congo speech and other American Spanish varieties. Finally, in chapter 5, Lipski speculates on the possible bases for congo speech patterns and characteristics; he strongly suggests that congo speech shows little or no connection with creole or bozal Afro-Iberian dialects.

The references are minutiae of useful sources referring to Spanish dialectology and creole studies in several languages. The appendix occasions a view at what Lipski really undertook; it provides a script of many hours of taped interviews which give ample indication of the author's dedication to details. Indeed, he acquired the characteristics of a cultural anthropologist by becoming a part of the Costa Arriba Congo community over a period of months in the mid s.

The dearth of typographical errors specifically, p. Although the early pages of the text assume some prior knowledge of linguistics, the text would certainly be accessible not only to linguists, but also to anthropologists, sociologists, historians, folklorists, and other scholars interested in this area of study. We as linguists can only hope Lipski will continue in his prodigious ways of producing superior, in-depth essays on little studied areas of Spanish dialectology.

The novel in question, then, has suddenly sprung into a place of prominence in the Galdosian canon, with new accessibility being offered to general readers and specialists. The tragic ending -which presents the murder of the protagonist by his absolutist uncle- is that found in the manuscript, and is more in accord with the overall Galdosian vision of the Spain of Fernando VII. The reader not familiar with Madrid and Spanish is probably left confused and the reader familiar with both, annoyed.

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For six of the novel's forty-three chapters Walter Rubin supplies historical notes. This reader did not find them especially helpful and wonders if a short, general historical introduction to the historical personages and issues of the times might not have been more advisable. They have supplied in an attractive, sturdy trade-paperback format an important Spanish novel of the nineteenth century in English.

Finally, classes in Latin American studies may find this picture of Spain during the time of American independence movements most revealing. The problems posed by such an enterprise are insurmountable. The resulting juxtaposition of humor and lyricism, poetic heights and occasional prosaic plunges, together with a potpourri of themes, is as disconcerting here as it is in the original.

This is not a collection to be read from cover to cover; instead the book should be opened at random and savored bit by bit. And when he succeeds -which is certainly not always- he soars. That's a hard thing for any translator to capture, especially when there is humor involved. Perhaps only another wizard of words would effectively recreate in English his brilliant and peculiar style. This novel is by no means an easy read, in the original Portuguese or in Rabassa's excellent translation, though in either case the reader's effort is well worth while.

In other words, the English like its Portuguese predecessor , reads well what Rabassa translation does not? This current edition of Avalovara is actually a re-edition of a translation that appeared in , published then by Alfred A. Given the novel's inherent structural and thematic challenges to the reader, however dedicated and resourceful, one wonders as to the motivation of the University of Texas Press certainly much less commercially-minded than the usual publishing venture , for the market will surely be at least somewhat limited.

The translation, besides opening the novel to a non-Portuguese-reading public, also points toward the translator's interpretation of the text. The current volume, then, is an act of critical scholarship, informed by the original novel and informing its subsequent readings, whether in English or in Portuguese. So Rabassa's translation should make Lins's text more accessible to readers, even if they are able to read Portuguese. The translation will serve as a useful tool for all students of the novel, given the multilingual light it can shed on it.

Throughout the novel, the translator succeeds in conveying the acute linguistic sensibility that characterizes the Brazilian original, making the reader in English feel the Portuguese behind and within his translation. The Portuguese text is like a yolyp, contained within the English version. Other languages also figure in this polyglot: expressions in Latin it is a palindrome in this language that describes much of the novel's basic structure , Italian, and French often are left in the original. On occasion, even Portuguese figures in the text, though with the English equivalent in parentheses.

This technique is not awkward at all, but rather serves to enhance the ratified aura of Lins's work. The question of who this is stands as only one of the mysteries of Avalovara. What is no mystery is that the translator would invest the kind of time and effort required to produce this sort of rendering. Helena Parente Cunha's Woman Between Mirrors Mulher no espelho , one of the most striking and innovative novels to appear in Brazil in the nineteen eighties, is finally available in English thanks to a joint effort by Fred P.

Ellison and Naomi Lindstrom. This sensitive and highly readable translation should be welcomed not only by the general English-speaking public, but most especially by students and teachers in Comparative Literature and Women's Studies courses, who now have access to another quality text by a contemporary Third World writer. Woman Between Mirrors bears unquestionable evidence that post-modern self-consciousness does not have to yield a cold and cerebral text, as is the case with so many North American metafictionists, but can be used, rather, to generate a fictional text in which innermost feelings and powerful emotions unabashedly play a central role.

This is not surprising since, as the meditation on the nature of writing in Chapter 19 clearly indicates, fiction is viewed here as a liberating enterprise, to the extent that it allows one to recreate reality and transcend the repetitive banality of the quotidian. It is also important that during this transformation the protagonist becomes increasingly identified with Afro-Brazilian culture, not only because an analogy is developed between the enslavement of Blacks and the oppression of women, but also because the recovery of African roots by the protagonist represents the recovery of primordial freedom.

In translating this magnificent novel, Ellison and Lindstrom were particularly successful at finding an American English equivalent for Parente Cunha's mellifluous poetic prose, without falling into a lofty, overblown rhetoricity. It is hard to find fault with this superb translation, but I would like to point out two problems that seem to be out of line with the quality of Ellison and Lindstrom's work.

The second problem is somewhat more serious. While in first grade, the protagonist is embarrassed by not knowing the meaning of bote , a less common Portuguese word for a small boat than barco or barquinho. The translators choose to use the English word boat , whereas perhaps a less common word such as dinghy might have been preferable.

It seems unlikely that such a bright child as the protagonist wouldn't know the meaning of boat , although, at that age, it is conceivable that she wouldn't know what bote in Portuguese or dinghy in English meant. This suggestion, however, is not meant to denigrate in any way the excellent translation by Fred Ellison and Naomi Lindstrom. We are lucky to have translators as sensitive to the nuances of the Portuguese language as our two colleagues from the University of Texas.

Finally, I would like to call attention to the translators' preface, which contains an enlightening and lucid discussion not only of the problems they faced in translating Parente Cunha's novel, but of problems faced by translators in general. This interesting preface is a welcome complement to a first-rate translation. A resposta, caso fosse dada, seria longa e transcenderia o escopo desta resenha. Os contos oferecem ao leitor a complexidade do universo seniano, bem como sua leveza no escrever e em compor teias e tramas.

Her work has been making its way into English largely through the efforts of Ellen Watson, who has been publishing translations of Prado's poems in anthologies, magazines, and a chapbook. The Alphabet in the Park offers a worthy, albeit monolingual, sampler of Prado's work. The cover photograph shows Prado looking equally earthy and elegant, accurately foreshadowing her poetry, grounded in primitive realities of life, yet knowingly conversant with the poetic past. Women's erotic expression has been a focus of the recent Brazilian cultural scene, and Prado has been attracting some of that attention.

Intensifying the impression of an uncontrived, here and now poetry are the allusions to Catholic culture. Still, it is too easy to be enraptured by the notion of artless, but marvelous, poetry emanating from an earth mother. Prado's poetry half-hides its intellectual and literary renovation that starts with Brazilian modernismo , with special reference to fellow mineiro authors. This verse stands in an instantly recognizable, but complex, relation to Drummond's work.

Prado's originality is nowhere stronger than in her bonds with other writers' work. Watson's selections effectively showcase Prado for English-language readers. Another Way to Be. Selected works of Rosario Castellanos. Edited and translated by Myralyn F. Foreword by Edward D. Terry, Athens: U. Translated with an introduction and notes by David Johnston. Cantigueiros , 2 Lexington: Society of the Cantigueiros, The Search for Order and Meaning.

London: Tamesis Books, Madrid: Editorial Pliegos, Actualidades Video. Viewer's Manual prepared by Luis Verano.

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Euphoria and Crisis. Essays on the Contemporary Mexican Novel.

Hipatia, La Primera Feminista y Mujer Más Sabia de la Antigüedad

Fredericton, N. Canada : York Press, Los zapaticos de rosa. Montclair, N. J: Senda Nueva de Ediciones, Amsterdam: Rodopi, Rende Italy : Mediterranean Press, Tales from the Mountain. Translated from the Portuguese by Ivana Carlsen. Uncorrected page proof. Fort Bragg, California: Q. Press, Quebec: Centre Internacional de Recherche sur le Bilinguisme, Hitler and Spain.

Lexington: UP of Kentucky, Book Reviews. Index of Authors, Titles, and Reviewers. Cervantes and the Augustinian Religious Tradition. Boston: Twayne Publishers, Guardiola Alcover, Conrado. La verdad actual sobre los Amantes de Teruel. Teruel, Spain: Instituto de Estudios Turolenses, Navajas, Gonzalo. Barcelona: Editorial Teide, Murcia: Universidad de Granada, Madrid: Espasa Calpe, Lorca's Late Poetry.

Leeds: Francis Cairns Publications , New York: Peter Lang, Madrid: Castalia, Critical Studies on Gonzalo Torrente Ballester. El sentimiento del miedo en la obra de Miguel Delibes. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, Jordan, Barry. British Hispanism and the Challenge of Literary Theory.

Warminster, England: Arts and Phillips, Gomes, Adalino Cabral, editors, with a preface by Eduardo M. Floresta, Nisia. Edited by Peggy Sharpe-Valadares. Retired Dreams. Dom Casmurro: Myth and Modernity. West Lafayette, Ind. Santiago, Chile: Editorial Aconcagua, Potomac, Maryland: Scripta Humanistica, The Idea of Race in Latin America , Edited by Richard Graham. Austin: U of Texas P, Gainesville: University of Florida Press, Luis, William.

Literary Bondage: Slavery in Cuban Narrative. Austin: University of Texas Press, Ortega, Julio. Fowlie-Flores, Fay. Annotated Bibliography of Puerto Rican Bibliographies.

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New York: Greenwood Press, David Jackson. With the collaboration of Margo Milleret and John F. Camurati, Mireya. Bioy Casares y el alegre trabajo de la inteligencia. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Corregidor, Williams, compilers. De ficciones y realidades: Perspectivas sobre literatura e historia colombianas. Feierstein, Ricardo.

Hispania. Volume 73, Number 4, December | Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes

Wegmann, Brenda. Fort Worth: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Alatorre, Antonio. Mexico, D. Greenwood Press, Shimose, Pedro. Historia de la literatura hispanoamericana. Madrid: Editorial Playor,